Update Note (October 2019)
Uh, so yeah...
The last six months haven't been any kinder to America.
An update to this concept is coming soon - I have decided, after learning more about Canadian politics, that British Columbia should come too.
Update Note (March 2019)
In the two years since writing this, the case for transitioning the United States from one central federal capitol to six or seven autonomous regional federal capitols, each taking the Constitution and interpreting/applying it to suit the residents of Americans living in their area, has only grown stronger.
The current President has openly claimed unconstitutional powers through his "Emergency" declaration, and history shows that these kinds of power-grabs function as a prelude to even more extreme actions, unless vigorously opposed. But so long as the Republican party's core supports Trump, nothing fundamental changes in DC, no matter how many Democrats decide to scrum for the nomination.
The USA is already divided into two distinct societies, each claiming a different set of facts as truth and alleging that the other society is dominated by "fake news."
These divisions run deep, are tied to historic patterns of settlement and migration, and have produced a nation that can no longer hold together - at least, not structured as it currently is, with DC hoovering up tax money and directing it to the Pentagon.
A Federation of Pacific States, organized along the lines I argue below, stands the best chance of effecting a smooth transition from the dying US system to a new, Pacific future. It will protect the economic, social, and political interests of Pacific Americans and let us build a better America.
If this concept speaks to you, there are some simple steps to making this a reality.
1. We need to demand a Constitutional Amendment allowing regions to establish their own federal government and inherit all powers Constitutionally veted in DC. This will most likely be achieved by coordinating legislative efforts at the State level across the entire US, allowing all regions the same rights as we're seeking.
2. A limited and focused Constitutional Convention will be held to come up with the specific legal wording and procedures for handing off responsibilities from DC to the new local capitols.
3. Establishment of a shadow government with popular support (via an initial election) to drive the process and work with the states joining the FPS to keep the process as smooth and fair as possible.
Final Note - I consider myself a Cascadian, and long-term I hope to make Cascadia a reality. But it is best achieved, I believe, by first supporting the establishment of an autonomous region that can prove it has what it takes to function on its own.
The Federation of Pacific States is an autonomous federal region organized under the authority of the Constitution of the United States of America, specifically the "Opt-Out" Amendment of 2021, adopted in the wake of the violently-contested 2020 United States Presidential Election. This Amendment allows any grouping of two or more contiguous states to demand full devolution of all existing Federal authority to a new regional Federal government, with the right to subsequently amend and evolve the Constitution as desired by the citizens living within the associated states.
The western-most six states of Alaska, California, Hawai'i, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington were the first region to demand full autonomy from the D.C. government, and held the first Federation of Pacific States Federal Elections in November, 2022. In 2026, after a transition period involving the handover of responsibilities and assets as well as the adoption of a formal plan for effecting a slate of Constitutional reforms favored by the citizens of the Pacific States, the Federation of Pacific States capitol in San Francisco was recognized by the United Nations as a separate entity from the United States of America proper.
Although the Federation of Pacific States remains in perpetual supra-federal union with the United States and its successors, waiving the right to unilaterally declare war, coin its own currency, or restrict freedom of travel between itself and other USA federal regions, it is a fully sovereign Federal Democratic Republic legitimized by the will of the people and the Constitution.
A Pacific Nation
In 2030, the Federation of Pacific States is home to more than 63 million people, the vast majority of whom live in the more than 400,000 square miles of the Continental Pacific States of California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. As a comparison, England houses a similarly-sized population on approximately 1/8th the land area. The northern state of Alaska alone covers more than 600,000 square miles, though it is home to fewer than 1 million people.
The Physical Geography of the Federation of Pacific States is dominated by two major features: the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Ring of Fire. The precipitation that sustains the region's highly productive ecosystems originates in the Pacific, is deposited in the Sierra, Cascade, and Rocky mountain ranges, then flows back to the Pacific via the life-sustaining waters of the Columbia and the Colorado. The Pacific moderates the climate in Western North America from Mexico to southern Alaska, producing unique temperate and mediterranean climate zones that have supported human life for more than twenty thousand years.
The Pacific Ring of Fire, largely responsible for the creation of the Pacific States' great mountains, also produces the majority of natural hazards experienced by Pacific States' residents. Many of the world's most active volcanoes occur in Alaska and Hawai'i, and others slumber in a long line from California through Washington. Underlying this volcanism is the long series of faults that stretch from Mexico to the Aleutians, and which regularly produce massive earthquakes and tsunami events, which can prove catastrophic to human life.
Despite these hazards, the Pacific States have produced some of the most dynamic social and economic innovations of modern times, and remain an active hub of high technology, pouring more public and private investment per capita into research than any other region of the USA. The region is a crossroads between the markets of Asia and Interior North America, and is expected to grow in population and wealth over the next twenty years, buoyed by the maturation of the Chinese national economy and the growing economic integration in the broader Pacific.
The Federation of Pacific States is by and large a nation of immigrants. Continuously occupied by humans for at least the past twenty thousand years, First Peoples experienced a major population crash at the onset of the invasion of the Europeans in the 17th-19th centuries. This was followed by a major population increase in the late 19th and again in the mid 20th centuries, as demographic pressures to the east produced a major flow of European migration that has only increased in the early 21st Century, accompanied by a shift in the origin from Europe proper to the independent nations that formed in the wake of European colonization in Latin and South America.
Although the migration of Europeans to the Pacific Coast shaped the region in the 20th Century, it was accompanied, and in many areas exceeded by, immigration from Asia. Chinese and Japanese Americans moved to the Pacific States in the 19th and 20th centuries seeking economic opportunity, and in the late 20th century large-scale immigration from Southeast Asia and the Middle East began. And though they moved in smaller numbers and mostly to urban areas where there was sufficient work available in shipyards and factories during the Second World War, African Americans also constitute a major ethnic group within the nation.
As in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, First Peoples have fought to ensure their place in society since the European immigrations to the Pacific began in force in the 19th Century. Constituting a major portion of the electorate in Alaska and Hawaii, the establishment of the Federation of Pacific States provided an opportunity for First Peoples from all six states to organize collectively to demand protection of their rights and access to political process. With sixteen reserved seats in the Federation of Pacific States Senate (8% of total) and comprising the ethnic majority in a number of counties, the First Peoples Caucus plays a key role in the Federation of Pacific States Legislature.
Preliminary results from the 2030 Pacific States' Census indicate that the ethnic composition of the region continues to diversify, with the Caucasian fraction of the population expected to decline to 45.4%, while the Latino fraction increases to 32.2% and the Asian fraction increases to 12.2%. As a result of its broadly pro-immigration and pro-refugee stance, the population of the Federation is expected to increase rapidly through 2050, with migrants from Africa and the Middle East constituting increasing fractions of the annual total.
The Federation of Pacific States represents the world's 4th-largest national economy, behind only the United States proper, China, and Japan, with Germany not far behind. Although the economic turmoil of the decade lasting from 2016-2026 kept real annual growth rates under 1% of GDP, the steady increase in population has ensured that the economy grew from almost $3.6 Trillion to just over $4 Trillion between 2015 and 2030.
An advanced services-based economy fully integrated with global markets through sea and air connections along the Pacific Coast, the Pacific States are the North American gateway to the vast markets of East and South Asia. High-technology is the dominant economic sector, with specialty agriculture, tourism, and energy production are also particularly important to the Pacific States' economy. Entertainment is a major economic and cultural export, with the 2029 Reconaissance Office annual report on national security trends indicating that by 2026 the Pacific States were perceived as fully distinct from and more positively viewed in the world than the United States as a whole, and this was now a key factor driving substantial foreign investment in the economy.
Significant challenges facing the Federation of Pacific States economy in the near to medium term include systemic economic vulnerabilities in rural counties in the Continental Interior, agricultural losses as a result of an increasingly unpredictable climate, and the persistent dependence on oil as the primary transportation fuel, which in the face of long-term decline in the availaibility of conventional oil resources represents a long-term source of structural inflation.
To a significant degree, the Pacific States owe their current economic competitiveness to infrastructure investments made by the United States federal government in the 1950s and 1960s. Dams, roads, ports, and aviation facilities constitute the basic enabling infrastructure for the High-tech economy. Failure to invest in maintenance and modernization of this core infrastructure has been widely identified as a factor in the United States' long term trajectory of economic decline.
In part to mitigate this decay, but also in part due to a political need to offer financial incentives to the poorer, more conservative, rural counties in the Continental Interior in order to win their support for establishing an independent Federal government in the region, the Federation of Pacific States has made significant public investment in infrastructure and in particular in driving economic growth in the Continental Interior by funding a major build-out of renewable energy production facilities. As a result, in 2031 the Pacific States are expected to generate more than 55% of electricity from renewable sources, a transition that has simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions and boosted rural economies, and the state of California has enacted plans to go even further, and mandate 80% of all electricity to be generated via renewables by 2050
In 2030 a 5-year infrastructure re-investment program was authorized by the federal government of the Pacific States, that aims to dramatically reduce energy use in metropolitan areas and along the Interstate 5 corridor by mandating that all future commuter and government vehicles be electric and fully-automated, with traffic flows on major arteries coordinated by a driving network to maximize the efficient movement of vehicles through an urban road network. This build-out aims to reduce productivity losses due to time spent in traffic as well as dependency on oil as a transportation fuel, and essentially scales-up an existing successful pilot program deployed in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2023.
Federal Constitutional State
Officially an "Autonomous Region Within the United States", the Federation of Pacific States is a de-facto sovereign federal constitutional state - save with respect to certain powers reserved by the supra-national capitol in Washington D.C. The 2021 "Opt-Out" Amendment to the United States Constitution authorized the six Pacific States to demand and receive a full devolution of all practical federal authority, inheriting all rights, privileges, and obligations accorded to the United States federal government by the Constitution - including the right to subsequently amend the Constitution to suit the needs and desires of its own citizens.
The "Pacific Solution", as it was later called, was to unite the six states under the authority of a federal government with strictly limited powers, with most governance responsibilities devolved to the states. Only those deemed necessary to the security and economic prosperity of the Pacific States would be retained by the federal authority, with enhanced checks-and-balances built into the governing mechanism to prevent a dangerous centralization of power in federal hands, as happened in the United States proper. Further, recognizing the severity of the urban/rural political divide within the four Continental States of California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, a substantial degree of sub-state level autonomy would be granted to groups of contiguous counties that would become the basic administrative units for the federal and state bureaucracies.
While most governing authority would remain in the existing state capitols, these new Districts would be granted the maximum latitude feasible in implementation of state and federal programs, particularly those that were seen as impinging on local social values. This would allow the more socially and economically conservative Continental Interior a significant degree of political autonomy, and mitigate the common perception (and reality, in many cases) of the rural districts being forgotten by the far more populous urban areas. While controversial, annual attitudinal surveys have demonstrated a slow but steady increase in support for the Pacific Solution over time.
As of 2030, this process has resulted in the creation of four Districts: Sierra, Tahoe, Klamath, and Columbia, from the more rural, conservative portions of California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. In each District, all state and federal level elected representatives meet once per year to decide on a "Governance Plan" that interprets recent legislative changes and directs the local bureacratic offices' implementation, with District-level referenda used as needed to legitimize potentially controversial decisions.
The federal government of the Federation of Pacific States functions as a Republic, with a bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, and executive branch headquartered in the federal capitol of San Francisco. The Constitution of the Federation of Pacific States is considered a direct descendent of the United States Constitution, albeit having undergone significant updates and streamlining in order to function more effectively in the 21st Century. Like its predecessor, the FPS Constitution creates a governing system emphasizing multiple branches, each checking and balancing the other, and incorporates both population and geographic controls on the Legislature itself.
The Legislative Branch is comprised of two chambers, equal in rank: the Senate, with 200 seats and headed by the Chancellor of the Senate, and the Assembly, with 100 seats and headed by the Speaker fo the Assembly. Each County in the Federation elects one Senator every two years, as do Guam, the Northern Marianas, and American Samoa. Thirteen additional Senate seats are reserved for members of First Peoples, one seat apportioned to each of the Districts. The Assembly, by contrast, apportions seats by population, with each District allocated a minimum of two Assembly members, and elections are held every six years. Both chambers require a 60% majority for legislation to pass. Thus, the Assembly functions as a popular democratic check, while the Senate functions as a geographic check. The President can veto legislation, but this can be overriden by a 70% majority.
The Judicial Branch functions identically to that of the United States, with 9 Justices of the Supreme Court of the Federation of Pacific States led by a Chief Justice, elected by the other Judges by consensus, who retains a significant staff and administrative responsibility for the court as a whole.
The Executive Branch of the Federation of Pacific States is responsible for the efficient and impartial administration of federal programs in accordance with legislative intent, as well as the foreign policy and collective defense of the nation. The President of the Federation of Pacific States is elected by direct popular vote, and has the right to appoint Supreme Court Justices and Cabinet Secretaries, and along with the other members of the National Security Council exerts full civilian oversight and control over the Federation of Pacific States Defense Forces.
The Federation of Pacific States Defense Forces are tasked with safeguarding the freedom of the Pacific States, its allies and partners, and American citizens in the Pacific. With a baseline annual budget of $108 billion (2015 dollars) representing 3% of its 2015 GDP, the FPSDF has the world's 3rd-largest military budget and an enviable security situation, with an ocean protecting the majority of Pacific States citizens from the only realistic near-future adversary, the People's Republic of China. Further, long-standing alliances with Japan, South Korea, and Australia - with a collective military budget in excess of $120 billion (2015 dollars)
As a result of this enviable geostrategic position, defense planners in the Federation of Pacific States have concluded that the primary military objective of the FPS in the unlikely event of a major conflict must be to prevent any hostile naval or aviation group from operating freely past what Chinese strategists refer to as the First Island Chain, meaning the Ryukus between Japan and Taiwan and the various nations that share the South China Sea. As a result, the Federation of Pacific States Navy is the largest branch, and maintains the ability to deploy a full carrier strike group along with its airwing, escorts, and an accompanying Marine strike group anywhere in the Pacific within 72 hours.
Secondary missions of the Defense Force include joint anti-piracy patrols, surveillance and reconaissance, homeland air defense, and disaster relief - with the lattermost receiving special attention in light of the geophysical hazards shared by the Pacific States. The rapid-response capabilities of the Defense Forces ensure that Pacific States forces can be on the ground and assisting within hours of a natural disaster occurring virtually anywhere in the Pacific.
The Federation of Pacific States Defense Forces remain deeply integrated with the American hemispheric defense system under the coordination of the Pentagon, and maintain full interoperability with both NATO and Pacific Allies' military forces. All units trace their heritage and traditions directly to the United States Armed Forces, and personnel may even transfer freely between FPS and USA formations upon request, with time served in either force considered administrative equivalent for personnel purposes.
The Federation of Pacific States inherited all responsibilities of the United States of America with respect to its security committments and diplomatic efforts in the Pacific. As such, it maintains extremely close relationships with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Korea, a relationship defined in the Pacific Treaty of 2024 as constiting an immediate obligation to provide direct military assistance in case one member is attacked. The Federation of Pacific States also maintains close partnerships with the Southeast Asian nations of Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines and strategic partnerships with Taiwan, India, and the People's Republic of China.
The fundamental pillars of Pacific States diplomacy were defined in 2023 as follows:
- Maintaining the existing territorial status quo in the Pacific and renouncing violence as a legitimate means of solving territorial disputes
- Seek de facto or de jure resolution of all outstanding territorial disputes to mitigate the danger of conflict
- Pursue bilateral and multilateral conventional and nuclear arms limitations and reductions agreements
- Peacefully assist China's integration as a partner in global political and economic affairs, while advocating for domestic democratic reforms and respect for human rights
- If deterrence fails, remain capable of preventing any adversary from threatening Pacific States or allied territory or citizens abroad.
In the extremely unlikely event of a global conflict, the Federation of Pacific States remains fully integrated and allied with the United States, sharing the same common bond as exists between Commonwealth nations like England, Canada, and Australia. In addition, the Federation of Pacific States is a nuclear power, maintaining three ballistic missile submarines in its inventory under and with at least one constantly deployed somewhere under the Pacific, giving the nation the capability to inflict massive retaliation on any nation or group that uses a nuclear weapon against any American or allied citizens.
The Flag of the Federation of Pacific States is made up of thick vertical stripes, and six stars on the central stripe. The left stripe is dark blue, symbolizing the Pacific Ocean. The right stripe is light blue, symbolizing the clear skies of the high mountains and interior plains. The central stripe is slightly larger than the other two, and is a field of green, symbolizing the lush environment that allows human life to thrive. Six white stars create a geometric pattern on the central green stripe, representing the relative location of the six states and the six founding states themselves.
NOTE: This is an initial draft (hence, 1.0), with attributions and citations still in-progress. It is the author's intent to release all work under a Creative Commons License in the future. One mind alone can't build a working system.